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Research Abstracts

I. Rain-Fed Crop Production Research Unit – Agadi

AAAID's extensive applied experiments that have been carried out since 2000 cover the following seven major themes:

(1) Variety trials (2) Fertilisation trials (3) Various incineration system trials (4) Weed control trials (5) Plant density trials (6) Row space trials and (7) Observation trials.

1. Variety Trials

  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sorghum Varieties This trial was conducted upon four varieties of sorghum, i.e. Wad Ahmed, Hybrid 1, Pannar 606 and Tabat, in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and quality. Based upon the results, Wad Ahmed was proven to be the best and most resistant to witchweed.
  • Comparison of Sorghum Verities This trial was conducted upon eight varieties of sorghum (Wad Ahmed, Hagega, Tabat, Arfa Gadamak, Wahi, Pacific 501, Pacific 509 and Pacific 537), in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture. Based upon the results obtained, Pacific 509 was the best in comparison to the others.
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sunflowers This trial was conducted upon four (hybrid and open sample) varieties of sunflowers (Hysun 33, Damazin 1/3, Pannar 7353 and Pannar 7392), in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and quality. Hysun 33 was, based upon the results, proven to be the best in this regard.
  • Comparison of Sunflower Varieties This trial was conducted upon seven varieties of sunflowers (Hysun 33, Hysun 47, Pannar 7033, Hysun 38, Mass 96A, Mass 97A and Pannar 7351), in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture. Based upon the results obtained, Pannar 7033 was the best in comparison to the others.
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sesame This trial was conducted upon four sesame varieties (Khider, Promo, Bash and Gadarif), in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture. Based upon the results obtained, Bash was the best in comparison to the others.
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Millet This trial was conducted upon five millet varieties (Aukashana, Pacific 982, Pacific 931, Pacific 902 and Wad Ashana), in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture. Based upon the results obtained, Pacific 982 was the best in comparison to the others.

2. Fertilisation Trials

  • Microelement Fertilisation
    • Effects of Zinc and Boron Additions as Leaf Fertilisers on Full Grains of Sunflowers In 1999, the sunflowers in the Agadi project showed the presence of empty grains. Among the many reasons provided for this problem was the hypothesised deficiency of zinc and boron. Therefore, this trial was designed specifically to check whether this hypothesis was grounded. Based upon the results, the boron addition boosted the number of full grains in sunflowers by 95% and had a significant effect on increasing productivity (1,584 kg/hectare).
    • Effects of Zinc and Phosphorus Additions on Full Grains of Sunflowers This trial aimed to find a solution for empty grains in (Hysun 33) sunflowers, which appeared in the Agadi project. Among the many reasons provided for this problem was the hypothesised deficiency of zinc and phosphorus. Therefore, this trial was designed specifically to check whether this hypothesis was grounded. According to the results obtained, the zinc addition increased the number of full grains, but it had no effect upon productivity. However, the phosphorus addition boosted productivity.
  • Macroelement Fertilisation
    • Effects of Phosphorus Addition on Growth and Productivity in Cotton This trial was set in order to show the effect of phosphorus fertiliser upon the productivity of rain-fed (Barack 67 B) cotton in the Agadi project. The results showed that cotton productivity was significantly increased by increasing the level of phosphorus addition.
    • Effects of Phosphorus Addition on Growth and Productivity in Sorghum This trial was set in order to show the effect of phosphorus fertiliser upon the productivity of Wad Ahmed sorghum. The results showed an increasing production of sorghum in response to additional doses of phosphorus.
    • Effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity in Sorghum This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed Wad Ahmed sorghum in the Agadi project. The results showed no qualitative differences in this regard because of the presence of physical impediments (delayed cultivation and presence of pests).
    • Effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity in Sunflowers This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed Hysun 33 sunflowers in the Agadi project. The results showed that ammonium sulphate nitrate was more effective in increasing the number of grains in the sunflower heads and the weight per thousand grains.
    • Effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity in Cotton This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed (Barack 67 B) cotton in the Agadi project. The results showed no qualitative differences in this regard, although the use of urea resulted in increased production.
    • Effects of NPK Fertiliser on Productivity in Sorghum This trial was intended to identify the effects of NPK fertilisation upon the production of rain-fed Wad Ahmed sorghum in the Agadi project. The results obtained showed that the potassium and phosphorus additions had not increased production (with respect to the N3 fertilizer only).
    • NPK Addition to Sesame This trial was set in order to compare NPK additions (17:17:17) with the fertilisation plan applied in the fertilisation programme implemented by the Promo Sesame Farmers.
    • Nitrogen Fertiliser Fragmentation This trial was designed in order to compare ammonium nitrate fertiliser, when added once at a rate of N1.5 / acre, with the treatment applied in the Farmers' Programme (N1 upon planting + N0.5 after 4 to 6 weeks following planting).
    • Fertilisation of Sorghum Using Various Nitrogen Fertilisers This trial was implemented in order to identify the economics of various nitrogen fertilisers in sorghum planting. The results obtained showed an increase in the production of Wad Ahmed sorghum when the fertilisation dose (NPK 20:5:10 + Mgo 1.5) was used.

3. Effects of Different Tillage Methods

3.1. Effects of Tillage Methods on Growth and Productivity in Sorghum

This trial was implemented in order to compare different tillage methods, i.e. the Zero-Tillage method, the Minimum-Tillage method and the traditional tillage-based methods, in terms of their effects upon the growth and production of Wad Ahmed sorghum.

The results showed no qualitative differences between these methods. However, these results may have been affected by several impediments.

3.2. Effects of Tillage Methods on Growth and Productivity in Sorghum

This trial was implemented in order to compare different tillage methods, i.e. the Zero-Tillage method, the Minimum-Tillage method and the traditional tillage-based methods, in terms of their effects upon the growth and production of Hysun 33 sunflowers.

The results showed no qualitative differences between these methods.

4. Weed Control Trials

4.1. Effects of Dual Gold and Gizaprim on Weed Control in Sorghum

This trial was implemented in order to identify the best concentration of the two herbicides Dual Gold and Gizaprim for sorghum weed control in the Agadi project.

Based upon the results obtained:

- Use of the recommended Dual Gold dose (0.48 kg per feddan) as the active ingredient increased production by 64%, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled, whereas the use of the recommended Gizaprim dose (0.2 kg per feddan) as the active ingredient increased production by 93%, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled;

- Use of Dual Gold and Gizaprim together showed good results, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled; and

- There were production differences between the fields in which the weed was controlled by Dual Gold and all other fields.

4.2. Chemical Control of Whichweed in Sorghum

This trial was set in order to examine the effects of herbicides in terms of the control of witchweed in Wad Ahmed sorghum.

5. Plant Density Trials

5.1. Plant Density in Cotton (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear metre)

This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Barack) cotton in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of cotton.

Based upon the results obtained, the plant density of seven plants/linear metre was proven to be the best in this regard.

5.2. Plant Density in Sorghum (10 – 14 – 20 Plants/Linear metre)

This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Wad Ahmed) sorghum in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sorghum.

Based upon the results obtained, the plant density of seven plants/linear metre was proven to be the best in this regard.

5.3. Plant Density in Maize (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear metre)

This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Banama) maize in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of maize.

Based upon the results obtained, the plant density of 10 plants/linear metre was proven to be the best in this regard.

5.4. Plant Density in Sunflowers (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear metre)

This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Hysun 33) sunflowers in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sunflowers.

Based upon the results obtained, the plant density of five plants/linear metre was proven to be the best in this regard.

6. Row Space Trials

6.1. Row Space in Cotton (0.75, 0.90 and 1.00 metres)

This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Barack 67 B) cotton in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of cotton.

Based upon the results obtained, the row space of 0.90 metres was proven to be the best in this regard.

6.2. Row Space in Sorghum (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 metres)

This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Wad Ahmed) sorghum in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sorghum.

Based upon the results obtained, the row space of 0.60 metres was proven to be the best in this regard.

6.3. Row Space in Maize (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 metres)

This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Banama) maize in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of maize.

Based upon the results obtained, the row space of 0.75 metres was proven to be the best in this regard.

6.4. Row Space in Sunflowers (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 metres)

This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Hysun 33) sunflowers in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sunflowers.

Based upon the results obtained, the row space of 0.75 metres was proven to be the best in this regard.

7. Observation Trials

7.1. Observation of Sesame Varieties

The aim of this observation was to compare the two unbranched, new varieties of Gadarif and Bash with the branched, traditional variety Promo in a relatively large area.

Based upon the results obtained, the production of the Bash variety was higher than those of the other two varieties.

7.2. Observation of Legumes

The aim of this trial was to observe different varieties of the following legumes in terms of performance and production: green gram, cluster bean, cowpea, pigeon pea, and soybean.

7.3. Observation of Soil Moisture in Farms

The aim of this observation was to monitor the moisture content of soil across the seasons and relate it to the production obtained.

7.4. GPS Measurement of the Boundaries and Areas of Farms:

The aim of this measurement was to determine the actual acreage and boundaries of the farms measured.

7.5. Hand-Held Machine Planning and V-Hoe Farming

The aim of this trial was to identify how efficient and suitable the hand-held planning machine was compared to the V-hoe cultivation method.

7.6. Binder-Harvesting of Sesame

The aim of this trial was to identify a machine that was suitable for sesame harvesting and compare it to other sesame harvesting methods in terms of efficiency, harvesting time and costs.

7.7. Plant Density Trial

This trial aimed to examine the effects of different row spaces on the growth and production of Wad Ahmed sorghum.

7.8. Pre-Season Cultivation of Cotton

The aim of this trial was to identify the minimum amount of rain accumulated at the beginning of cultivation seasons with which the soil and climatic conditions could be suitable for fertilisation and cultivation for cotton to grow for the longest period possible before the dry season to utilise the maximum amount of water to obtain a good production.

7.9. Reduction of Sorghum Cultivation Costs

The aim of this trial was to reduce the costs incurred by the cultivation of sorghum, maintaining the highest economic production in this regard.

Based upon the results obtained, it seemed that using the full technical package (row-based planting + fertilisation + use of Dual Gold and Gizaprim) increased productivity.

II. Rain-Fed Crop Production Research Station (Gadarif)

The extensive, applied trials that have been carried out since 2000 cover five major themes: (1). Variety trials of corn, sesame, cotton and sunflowers; (2). Fertilisation trials in terms of the types, addition rates and addition dates of fertilisers; (3). Seed-rate-based plant density trials; (4). Row spaces trials; and (5). Observations of promising crops.

1. Variety Trials

1.1. Comparative Varieties of Sorghum

This trial was conducted upon three varieties of sorghum, i.e. Liberty, Tabat and Wad Ahmed, in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture in the Gadarif area.

1.2. Comparative Varieties of Sesame

This trial was conducted upon three varieties of sesame, i.e. Hilan, Promo and Khidir, in order to choose the best variety in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture.

1.3. Comparative Varieties of Cotton

This trial was conducted upon different varieties of sesame, i.e. Barack 67 B, Acala (93) H, Albar (57/12), BB 55 and L 82, which were recommended by the Sudan Agricultural Research Corporation, in order to choose the best varieties in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture.

1.4. Comparative Varieties of Maize

This trial was conducted upon different varieties of maize, i.e. Hicorn 53, Hicorn 75, PAN 6480, Hudaiba 1, etc., in order to choose the best varieties in terms of productivity and suitability for rain-fed zero-tillage agriculture.

2. Fertilisation Trials

2.1. Effects of NPK and Urea Fertilisation on Wad Ahmed Sorghum

This trial aimed to identify the best fertilisation programme in terms of types of fertilisers and suitable doses.

2.2. Nitrogen Fertiliser Fragmentation

This trial was designed in order to compare ammonium nitrate fertiliser, when added once at a rate of N1.5 / acre, with the treatment applied in the Farmers' Programme (N1 upon planting + N0.5 after 4 to 6 weeks following planting).

2.3. NPK Fertiliser Addition

This trial was set in order to compare NPK additions (17:17:17) with the fertilisation plan implemented by the Farmers' Programme.

3. Row Space Trials

3.1. Row Spaces in Promo Sesame

This trial was set in order to identify the best row space in Promo sesame for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of this sesame variety.

4. Weed Control Trials

4.1. Weed Control in Wad Ahmed Sorghum and Promo Sesame

This trial aimed to improve weed control by reducing weeds' resistance against herbicides and pesticides, finding applicable alternatives and reducing herbicide costs.

5. Plant Density Trials

5.1. Effects of Row Spaces on Growth and Productivity of Sorghum

The aim of this trial was to compare different plant densities in the sorghum crop in order to identify the best plant density for rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation.

6. Observation Trials

6.1. Observation of Soil Moisture in Farms

The aim of this observation was to monitor the moisture content of soil across the seasons and relate it to the production obtained.

III. Fruit and Vegetable Production Research Station (Umm Dawm)

The extensive, applied research trials that have been carried out since 2000 cover three major themes: (1). Trials on new varieties of cereals and vegetables; (2). Trials on cultivation timing and fertilisation effects; and (3). Trials on the effects of magnetised-water irrigation on cereals and vegetables.

1. Vegetable Varieties Trials

1.1. Seedling Cultivation of Tomatoes

The aim of this trial was to identify the effects of seedling cultivation on the production and quality of tomatoes, in comparison to the seed-cultivation-based method. The varieties included in this trial were Peto 111, UC 82, and Strain B.

Based upon the results obtained, the seedling-cultivation-based method was proven to be qualitatively better than the other method.

1.2. Responses of Hybrid Tomato Varieties in the Khartoum Winter Season

This trial aimed to identify the responses of hybrid tomato varieties in the winter season in the Khartoum region in terms of growth and production. The varieties included in this trial were GS-12, VT-737 and FA-38.

Based upon the results obtained, the FA-38 variety yielded the best production (58 tonnes/feddan).

1.3. Tomato Varieties and Winter Cultivation

This trial aimed to compare tomato varieties with each other in terms of their suitability for cultivation in the winter season. The varieties included in this trial were Peto 86, Peto 111, Castle Rock, UC 82 and Riogrande.

Based upon the results obtained, the hybrid Riogrande variety yielded the best production (32 tonnes/feddan).

1.4. Soaking the Galia Melon Seeds in Diluted Cobalt Solution before Planting

This trial aimed to identify the effects of soaking Galia melon seeds in diluted cobalt solution for two days before planting, how this could affect the quality and productivity of the Galia melons and how these plants could resist damping-off disease. The variety included in this trial was the Galia melon.

Based upon the results obtained, there was shown to be a qualitative increase in the growth and sizes of the Galia roots, with a noticeable decline in the number of the damping-off fruits.

1.5. Effects of Plant Density on Productivity and Quality of the Galia Melon (6,000 – 9,000 – 12,000 Plants/Feddan)

The results of this trial showed that the minimum plant density (6,000 plants/feddan) was ranked first in both the vegetative and fruiting stages and was ranked second in terms of production and damping-off resistance, following the medium plant density (9,000 plants/feddan).

1.6. Effects of Seeding Cultivation on Productivity and Quality of Sweet Fennel

This trial aimed to identify the effects of seedling-based cultivation on the productivity and quality of sweet fennel, in comparison to the seed-based-cultivation method. Fennel was the only variety included in this trial.

Based upon the results obtained, the seedling-based cultivation was proven to be better than the other method.

1.7. Comparative Production of Cucumber Varieties in Winter Cultivation

This trial aimed to compare cucumber varieties with each other in order to identify the best variety in terms of production. The varieties included in this trial were Beta Alpha-hybrid, Fresco, and Highmark-hybrid.

Based upon the results obtained, the hybrid varieties were proven to be of a qualitatively increasing production (18-19 tonnes/feddan).

1.8. Effects of Varieties and Planting Dates on Productivity and Quality of Broccoli in Khartoum

This trial aimed to identify the effects of varieties and planting dates on the productivity and quality of broccoli under the environmental circumstances of the Khartoum region in Sudan. The varieties included in this trial were MAAA1 and MAAA2.

Based upon the results obtained, the best planting time was proven to be October every year.

1.9. Effects of Winter Planting Dates on Productivity and Quality of Iceberg Lettuce in Khartoum

This trial aimed to identify the effects of winter planting dates on the productivity and quality of iceberg lettuce under the environmental circumstances of the Khartoum region in Sudan. Based upon the results obtained, the best planting time was proven to be October every year.

1.10. Effects of Varieties and Planting Dates on Productivity and Quality of Broad Beans

This trial aimed to examine the effects of varieties and planting dates on the productivity and quality of broad beans. The varieties included in this trial were Aqabat and Al-Sulaimi.

Based upon the results obtained, the Aqabat variety was proven to be the best in this regard.

2. Cereal Crops Trials

2.1. Comparative Maize Varieties (Hybrid-10 + Open-Pollinated-2)

The objective of this trial was to compare different maize varieties with each other.

The varieties included in this trial were Hudaiba 1, Hudaiba 2, Pannar 6568, Pacific, Pacific 8222, Highcorn 75, Pannar 6480, Garst 8527W, Garst 8966, Pacific 8450, Pacific 8362, Pacific 8327 and Pacific 8288.

2.2. Response of Three Maize Hybrid Varieties to Microelement Spray Fertilisation

The objective of this trial was to identify the effects of microelement fertilisation on the production of maize.

The varieties included in this trial were Highcorn 75, Pannar 6480 and Pannar 6568.

2.3. Comparative Varieties and Pore and Row Spaces

The objective of this trial was to identify the effects of varieties, pore and row spaces, and the effect of the number of seeds per pore on the productivity of each variety.

The varieties included in this trial were Kiriz and Medani.

2.4. Sodiri Groundnuts and Iron-Sulphur Fertilisation

The objective of this trial was to identify the effects of iron-sulphur fertilisation on the productivity of the Sodiri variety of groundnuts. The only variety included in this trial was the Sodiri variety.

2.5. Effects of Variety, Pore Space and Fertilisation on Productivity of Groundnuts

The objective of this trial was to identify the effects of varieties, pore spaces and fertilisation on the productivity of groundnuts. The varieties included in this trial were Kiriz and Medani.

2.6. Groundnuts and Response to Gypsum Treatment

The objective of this trial was to identify the effects of gypsum treatment on the productivity and quality of groundnuts. The variety included in this trial was Kiriz.

2.7. Two Sesame Varieties under Three Plant Densities

The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of varieties and plant density on the productivity of sesame. The sesame varieties included in this trial were Promo and Giza-32.

2.8. Effects of Chemical Fertilisation and Plant Density on Productivity of Giza-32 Sesame

The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of varieties, plant density and fertilisation on the productivity of sesame. The sesame variety included in this trial was Giza-32.

2.9. Effects of Varieties and Plant Density on Productivity of Sunflowers

The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of varieties and plant density on the productivity of sunflowers. The varieties included in this trial were Hysun 33 and Pannar 7392.

2.10. Effects of Planting Dates on Productivity of Soybeans

The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of planting dates on the productivity of soybeans. The variety included in this trial was Giza-42.

  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sorghum Varieties
  • Comparison of Sorghum Verities
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sunflowers
  • Comparison of Sunflower Varieties
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sesame
  • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Millet
    • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sorghum Varieties
    • Comparison of Sorghum Verities
    • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sunflowers
    • Comparison of Sunflower Varieties
    • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Sesame
    • Comparative Productivity and Adaptability in Millet